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To: Government of Canada
Date: March 14, 2016
Object: Bill C – 51: The Anti – Terrorism Act 2015
Target Audience: Canadians, CSIS, Public Safety Canada, National Defence Canada, as well as any security, human rights, and information lobbyist groups.
What is important for any government is the protection of safety for its citizens especially after any horrific attacks that might have happen – at home or abroad – while trying to balance potential threats with protecting societal democratic rights. With the Bill C- 51: The Anti – Terrorism Act, 2015, its main goal was to protect Canada and Canadians “…against activities that undermine the security of Canada often transcends the mandate and capability of any one Government of Canada institution…” by sharing any information that government institutions while monitoring “concerning individuals” who may pose a threat to such security (Library of Parliament, 2015, p. 2). Also, the Bill increases the power of various departments monitor air travel, and amendments to the Canadian Security Intelligence, the Immigration and Refugee laws as well as the Criminal Code of Canada (CCC) in relation to criminal-terrorist related offences (Library of Parliament, 2015). Concerns to the reconstruction of Canada’s national security laws can be so far-reaching resulting to difficulty of understanding by the public and concerns to civil liberty association, legal and immigration officials, as well as IT and information professionals. Yet, the main question is how Bill C – 51protect Canadians does or does it infringe on their privacy?
Bill C – 51, the Anti – Terrorism Act 2015, went active once it went into Royal Assent in June 2015, and states within the preamble that the new multiple legislations are to protect Canada and Canadians “…against activities that undermine the security of Canada often transcends the mandate and capability of any one Government of Canada institution…” through the enablement of any information from 17 governmental departments and agencies to be shared for the purposes of any posed threat to security (Library of Parliament, 2015, p. 2). Yet, this allows for any shared personal information to be evaluated for “security threat” perspectives which would infringe on Canadian privacy rights (Thierren, 2015). Also, some of the 17 departments and agencies who are now affected by the Bill would generally not seen as linked to security such as Canadian Nuclear Safety, Public Health Canada and Canada Revenue Agency (Parliament Canada, 2015). Yet, it can be seen through history that these laws, as the title of Bill C – 51 shows, is mainly to deal with any manifestation of terrorism that threats Canada and to not only dealing with such threats abroad, but also, any home grown or “radicalization” within the nation which is an increasing reality. As a result, it can be “…re – examing existing legislative tools to address this reality is an entirely appropriate action to take.” (Clayton, 2015). As a result, there has been a mixture of reviews for this Bill. As discussed later on, it mostly brings concern for Charter Rights, privacy rights, and concern that there could be mistakes with false identification.
Bill C – 51 has become controversial within its problems through the security of Canada and Canadians. The first issue is with information sharing that affects Canadians privacy rights because it blocks any law or organization to have judicial resort ensuing to improper collection, use or release of their personal information. According to Security of Canada Information Sharing Act, section 5, disclosure of information is bad, yet, the “…Government of Canada institution may, on its own initiative or on request, disclose information to the head of a recipient Government of Canada institution whose title is listed in Schedule 3…if the information is relevant to the recipient institution’s jurisdiction…that undermine the security of Canada, including in respect of their detection, identification, analysis, prevention, investigation or disruption” resulting to the 17 departments with information have broadened powers to do whatever deemed fit to “protect Canadians” (Parliament of Canada, 2015; Kramp, 2015). Also, amendments within the CCC on “terrorist activity” and “s.2 of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act will be implemented bring issue if any allegation and charges are to “genuine security threats” and CSIS will be given even more powers than gathering data (Kramp, 2015).The second issue is retention periods which are not mentioned nor how to dispose of them by departments resulting to SCISA permitting these departments to know everything about everyone and keeping such information forever (Kramp, 2015). Thirdly, the concern of oversight and review mechanisms that do not allow the relevant bodies to look over the information resulting to inadequate review standards while allowing the 17 departments receiving “national security” information that would not be considered under any review committee and even an independent review body to evaluate the collected information (Kamp, 2015). Lastly, there is the infringement of Charter rights of Canadians with sections 8 (search or seizure), section 7 (Life, liberty and security of person) and section 2, b (any form of freedom expression) in the sense that CSIS with its broad powers can infringe on section 8 because judges are now allowed to become more biased and willing to give warrants, yet, with information sharing there is no need for the warrant (Department of Justice, 2016). Also, this results to infringement on Canadians security and life because their personal information can be exploited and misused linking to section 2 that people cannot make any comment that may be misinterpreted and could be used in the court of law.
There are few recommendations viewed to improve Bill C 51. Two related to sharing information standards in which information that meets such standards must be shared with the 17 agencies and are required to assess the reasonableness and proportionality of the collection and fall under “activities undermining the security of Canada”; the phrase should be reviewed and be limited to what is deemed as a real threat’s to security (Kamp, 2015). In the case of conflict between that definition and the jurisdiction of recipient institutions, it should be clarified that the former is not intended to expand the latter. The third recommendation is that on retention periods for which any personal information that does not meet a legal collections standard, then it must be thrown away; SCISA demands that any collected information should only be kept as long as necessary while the proper retention periods and decisions be maintained is essential (Kamp, 2015). The two final recommendations will look into new amendments that have explicit regulations that are to be consulted with the Office of the Privacy Commissioner before seen and implemented to ensure respect to privacy rights and easier navigation to what is deemed as a threat to security. Additionally, this would affect the 17 named departments who will be subject to review by an independent evaluation body to ensure that they abide by the Privacy Act to when dealing with the collection, use or disclosure of personal information (Kamp, 2015).
Personally, there is a need for an amendment of this Anti – Terrorist Act because of its interlink harm to Charter rights, Canadian rule of law, the function of bureaucracy and the overall health of Canada’s democracy. Also, I am concerned with the reconstruction and inclusion of 17 departments who can take any information ranging from taxes to health records to new immigrant information just to appease “activities that undermine the security of Canada” (National Post, 2015). I think an independent review body and information standards since nowhere within the Bill shows any mechanism that can adequately monitor the governments activities or awareness of information sharing and if SCISA did have a set of criteria on how to do sharing, collection, use and retention of personal information (Kamp, 2015). As Nicholas Scott state, Bill C – 51 does protect the security of Canada, yet, it is not complete when dealing with terrorists threat and there is a need for a collaboration between the 17 departments, courts and public to prioritize and fill the needs of “…funding allocations, deployment of capability-enhancing technologies, and ensuring ongoing interagency security operations coordination with appropriate reporting mechanisms for non-performance.” (2015). There is needs to find a balance of pursuit of any harm in protection of the security of Canadians, yet, if there is no change from the new government than it should be scrapped.
In conclusion, while protecting safety of Canadians, Bill C- 51: The Anti – Terrorism Act 2015 does so “…against activities that undermine the security of Canada often transcends the mandate and capability of any one Government of Canada institution…” by increasing department powers and information sharing amongst some activities. Yet, its implementation has allowed increase infringement on privacy and charter rights and harming Canadians, who may not always be aware of what is happening. It raises the issue of even keeping the Bill and how to do so through amendments or to scrape it completely before harm increases.
Department of Justice (2015). Charter or Rights and Freedoms. Retrieved from: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-15.html
Forcese, C. and Roach, K. (2015). Bill C-51: The Good, the Bad…and the Truly Ugly. The Walrus. Retrieved from: http://thewalrus.ca/bill-c-51-the-good-the-bad-and-the-truly-ugly/
Kramp, D. (2015). Bill C-51, the Anti-Terrorism Act, 2015: Submission to the Standing
Committee on Public Safety and National Security of the House of Commons. Retrieved from: https://www.priv.gc.ca/parl/2015/parl_sub_150305_e.asp
Library of Parliament (2015). Bill C-51: An Act to enact the Security of Canada Information Sharing Act and the Secure Air Travel Act, to amend the Criminal Code, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Act. Retrieved from: http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/LegislativeSummaries/41/2/c51-e.pdf
———————— (2015). Open Letter to Parliament: Amend C – 51 or Kill It. National Post. Retrieved from:
Newark, S. (2015). C – 51: An Analysis Without the Hype and Hysteria. MacDonald – Laurier Institute.
Retrieved from: http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/files/pdf/MLICommentaryNewark03-15WebReadyV4.pdf
Parliament of Canada (2015). Schedule 3: (Subsections 5(1) and 10(3)) Recipient Government of Canada Institutions and Their Heads. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=6932136&Col=1&File=221#1
Parliament of Canada (2015). Second Session, Forty0First Parliament, 62-63-64 Elizabeth II,2013-2014-2015. Statutes of Canada 2015, Chapter 2015 Act to enact the Security of Canada Information Sharing Act and the Secure Air Travel Act, to amend the Criminal Code, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&DocId=8056977&File=4
Thierren, D. (2015). Statement of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada Following the Tabling of Bill C – 51. Retrieved from: https://www.priv.gc.ca/media/nr-c/2015/s-d_150130_e.asp
The Research Method Chosen
The research method that I have chosen is that of case studies under, the qualitative research method approach. It is mostly used in sociology and anthropology, yet, has expanded to subjects such as medicine, social work, political sciences, sociology, education, psychology, and health sciences. The case study is defined as a detailed and comprehensive exploration of an entity (the case) such that any person or persons, a social group, an event, a family, an organization or an institution. The case study is part of the daily context of the participants to build on their perspective. All phenomena include a number of aspects. The researcher chooses one or more aspects of the case concerned or on which he or which focuses for the collection and analysis of data. The data can be collected over a long period, during which a number of data collection methods are used. The study is event has the potential to reveal important results, which may lead to the design assumptions. The early steps of case studies are choosing and defining the problem, then furthering the elaboration of a description and a detailed analysis, the type of problem that is best is the one who can provide a thorough understanding of a case or cases come. Once any researcher has clarified a phenomenon of interest, it chooses a case and studies in depth the appropriate case, such a learning difficulty a high, rare or unique clinical condition. In the study of intrinsic cases, it essentially aims to allow a better understanding of the cases studied. take care researcher to identify important facts by abandoning the other aspects. Multiple data sources that are used (observations, interviews, audiovisual material, documents, reports, relatives, stakeholders) so a plate depth in describing the phenomenon under study. Like other methods of qualitative research, the researcher spends much time the ground to revise operations. From the collection of data, a detailed description emerges, in which the researcher describes aspects such as the history of the case, the chronology of events or the reporting of data, it can be holistic, covering cases whole, or be rooted in the precise case an aspect.
The Research Problem and Subject
The research subject matter is the question on the rise of technology within a hospital setting in the use of electronic documents and information systems such as e-patient health records. This will correlate to intrinsic case study research by looking at how the daily activity of the integrated electronic health record (EHR) and how it is affecting health care in the sense of the function as well as how it may affects patient care and the duties of the health professionals. whether it is a good thing or not. This research will begin to look at how different health professionals feel as well as the amount of times they will use such e-health records such as nurses, physicians and health administrators. It will then the research will look at benefit and challenges that such technology brings for the patients and a global comparative analysis on how it affects different nations.
Three main Case Studies
A) Health ProfessionalsFor the health professional aspect, Dawn Dowding, Marianne Turley, and Terhilda Garrido’s “Nurses’ Use of an Integrated Electronic Health Record: Results of a Case Site Analysis” article studies how nurses use an integrated Electronic Health Record (EHR). Dowding and her peers that study such people, they use research observation and semi-structured interviews two hospitals – one that is new within rural area versus and a hospital within a city – and the interviews were conducted with 28 samples that are within the northern California region and they use the Kaiser Permanente. The in-depth analysis of how nurses feel in using the EHR practise to see if it bring better health care to their patients. Overall to study their perceptions of the KP Health Connect (EHR) and how it affected their practice. 3 Key Themes: Point of Care – Juggling competing demands (Prioritising information to be document; retrospective time – sampling; cut and paste); Limitations of System – Use of Paper (To link information between flow sheets; to provide cognitive and medication process) and functionality of system – accessibility of information (preventions of error and improved safety such as medication administration and legibility of records; monitor care quality such as audits of pain assessment; and communication processes with others such as physicians and patients). Additionally, the nurses saw improved communication, ease of access to information and the safety of medication administration processes; to support care documentation and initiatives to improve the quality of care provided by nurses. Issues: Little is known of how technology and electronic records affect nurses daily function. Even though there is evidence that shows can bring benefits in the safety of outcomes and preventive care, but, the problem with how much technology being integrated into the work and which hospital/institutions/clinics would implement the technology or not. One issue is that the EHR and HIT will bring more of a burden for nurses which brings negative affects to safer care and threats to patient safety as well as overall efficiency and effectiveness. There is also concern what the individual use of the technology. Out of reviewing 11 studies, There is the problem of increasing amount of time documenting per patient across a range from 7% to 128.4%. There is some concern with the type of electronic system being used, the KP Health Connect that have spreadsheets that were not always easy to communicate patient health or the patient assesments are too long or extremely limited in what nurses are to look at when assessing patients. Time is important and if the assessment are very limited because the nurse may have to do it after their shift has ended or when they have their breaks or write on a piece of paper which is a regression to using the technology provided and how this affects the care that they must give to their patients or printed the summary handover sheets to write their notes. The papers would have notes on the patents behaviour to the medication that is needed to which patient. Furthermore, some of the sample participants 2 – 13 nurses have copied and pasted older assessment posts and just edited the needed sections of the patients actions or statements which can have a negative effect on the patients health. Due not being able to read properly the system and having too many patients, many times nurses may bring the wrong tests or medications to which patient. Also, placing the notes to the wrong patient health record. Benefits: Using routine practice to work efficiently. A second benefit, is that once accustomed in using the system, it is easier and more immediate, Easier to get information from the past and easier to read physician scrawl that many times in the past can be difficult to read and a constant interaction with the doctors to understand which medicine or specific assessment/event. The e-cart that states which medication to which patient can state how much for which individual patient. B) Patient – CareFor the patient care aspect, Christopher Harle’s “Overcoming barriers to implementing patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record: a case report” article studies 6 health facilities in Florida and the use of EHR’s that have been implemented that affect patients by looking into the use of patient-reported outcomes as part of the EHR system to allow for health officials to assess their patients in a better manner. The purpose of this us to maximize the clinical decisions and care quality. Most of these facilities have a central IT system and uses a questionnaire Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR) – a web server that is an open source and looks at pain interference and behaviour, fatigue, physical function, sleep disruption, sleep -related impairment, anger, depression and anxiety. Challenges: There is the concern of the case itself in the sense that it did not give any interview or observational response if this has worked for health officials; it was basic when giving information. Two stated major barriers:a) uncertain clinical benefit: uncertain if the users of the systems are doing their job well in giving the questionnaire and if the patients are being truthful in their answers, especially since many of the questions asked – according to some health officials asking the patients – look into psychological issues such as that many health officials who do assessments on a new patient arrives do not always want to do a new patient report.
b) time, work flow, and effort constraints: cuts across all of the stakeholders feedback on the concerns about implementing the system. In other words, there may be less work in areas such as patient wait times or reduce health professionals and patient time and effort. Benefits: The patient reported outcomes documents within EHR can be a useful clinical tool in the sense that it reduces burden from patients by 71%.
C) Global PerspectiveOne global example is with Ben-Assuli, Shabtai, and Leshno’s article “Using Electronic Health Record Systems to Optimize Admission Decisions: The Creatinine Case Study” that looks at how medical organizations are implementing (EHR) and (HIE) networks to improve medical decision-making through the investigation of how such technology is trying to reduce redundant admissions, especially in emergencies by studying how 7 Israeli hospitals are contributing to EHR to reduce any avoidable admissions, such as track log-file analysis. Within Israel, its citizens are legally required to be a member of one of four health maintenance organizations (HMO) – looks at the largest one with 3.8 million – and it is sort of like an insurance company. The sample participant size is narrowed to patients who are within a Creatinine program – the breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscles and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body and can usually be seen within going through the kidneys and goes through the blood. The study focuses on two groups within the Creatinine programs patients: those whose information is looked at and those whose information isn’t. Challenges: one of the major challenges that this study tries to tackle is the lack of information and use of the technology implemented can lead to lesser quality of care and unnecessary costs. The increase of information given from EHR is viewed as making decisions more complex. Also, the information given to health professionals can be exploited because they will only retrieved limited amount of relevant information to make such decisions even without time constraints. There is rising concern that IT will be poorly adapted within the social setting of the healthcare environment and will lead to health officials making it flexible to their needs when working. 62.9% or all referrals didn’t involve the EHR (37.1% of hospitals did referrals the EHR). Saw increase admissions rate by 6.11%, but, there was a decrease in 7-day readmission by 3.51%. Huge concern is with privacy of patient information and that different hospitals will jvae different policies and practives regarding the use of EHR. Benefits: teaching health officials how to use the technology given, and properly, can lead to a reduce in unnecessary costs and increase quality of care. IT is seen as helping in the achievement of safer, more effective, patient – centred, timely, efficient and equitable health care. HIT can decrease costs of healthcare while maintaining or improving quality. Electronic records allow to view the medical history and are deemed as allowing for better decision making and outcomes.
Technology has affected society, economics, politics and the government in how they perform on a daily basis; mostly cyberspace has affected how all four function. According to Andre Feenberg, technology has been overshadowing political democracy due to the various stakeholders such as corporate, military, some physicians as well as engineer professionals due to seeing the various changes and yearns of urban growth, the expansion of transportation systems as well as innovations and how they effect the experiences along with needs of various clientele in different institutions (1992). This has resulted in concern as well as criticisms and doubts about democratic governments.
The philosopher, John Stuart Mills, has pushed the term of libertarian for which there are arguments government that it threats liberty of citizen’s as well as their freedom. Additionally, liberty will be threatened by government through “…stigma and intolerance as by the threat of state punishment…” as well as when the private and public sector are in confliction (Lessig, 2006, p. 120). This has allowed there to be several enemies to liberty and citizens such as the public and private sector. Now, with the rise and evolution of technology, it has allowed for so many grey zones for which cyberspace is now becoming a new enemy forefront, especially since this is a relatively new academic research field. This has led to some sort of social cyberspace that affects four main areas of regulation of citizen’s everyday activity. The first is what laws are implemented by the government(s) upon people for them to or not to do anything while the second is norms that are of a social construct for which activities or behaviors are liked by majority of society (Lessig, 2006). The third regulation is the market which can produce a price structure that can allow for access, as an example due to lower economic classes of people may not be able to buy certain products while the fourth regulation is that architecture of cyberspace which is the actual software and hardware that allow for some constraints the behaviour of people whether it is a password, having an actual computer or programs within at home or is it at some other places (Lessig, 2006).
As stated, there are theories that question government in today’s society due to technology. One is that of democratic theory in the sense that technology is engulfing governments for the sake of infrastructure, transportation, homes and more for citizens. Its issue, is that “…modern technology is incompatible with workplace democracy…[and it]… cannot reasonably press for reforms that would destroy the economic foundations of society.” (Feenberg, 1992, p. 302). Also, it is viewed that democratic theory is not the problem with the growth technology is not the issue of industrial power, yet, it is seen that technology is progressing more within a government with authoritarian power (Feenberg, 1992). Then there is technological determinism for which technologies are giving autonomous logic that influences social impacts while the institutions are viewed as universal and planetary (Feenberg, 1992). For social determinism, there is constructivism in which technology is not just a science, but, social. It brings help to workers to resolve problems and to make work easier, but, the issue is the number of people needed within a workplace due to the change of technology (Feenberg, 1992). The issue with the two is the price tag as seen with green technology or helping the environment.
Feenberg, A. (1992). Subverse Rationalization: Technology, Power and Democracy. Inquiry, vol35, pp. 301 – 22. Retrieved from: http://www.sfu.ca/~andrewf/books/Subversive_Rationalization_Technology_Power_Democracy.pdf
Lessig, L. (2006). Code. Version 2. New York: Basic Books. Chapter 7, what things Regulate, Pp. 120 – 137]. http://code2.cc/downloads+remix/Lessie-Codev2.pdf
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was created in 1948 for which it tries to push its goal of promoting “…sustainable development and help people fulfil their hopes and aspirations.” (2014). Moreover, its creation was to deal with the aftermath of the two world wars while the issues of “…political and economic agreements are not enough to build a lasting peace” that has allowed the organization to push for more long lasting peace humanity’s moral and intellectual solidarity by going through the change that has come through globalization and the interconnection societies along with their cooperation while trying to see any changes that are coming forth in the environment through common subjects like education, scientific research and knowledge sharing (UNESCO, 2016). This is done through cooperating with numerous societies, the private sector and other institutions around the world to keep achieving the goal in hopes of long lasting peace, equitability and sustainable development while trying to deal any challenges that the international community may make as well as any pressure that they may face (UNESCO, 2015; UNESCO, 2014).
The most important challenge is that of the changing world that is becoming more global, interconnectedness, technology and information sciences. This needs to find a resolve for societies to thrive. This challenge breaks down to several sub-problems. One is with freedom of speech, especially when it comes from journalists or any other forms of media officials, such as the journalist Monica Gonzalez who was trying to present the truth of the totalitarian Chilean government during the early 1980’s that had resulted to her imprisonment and eventual release as well as various publishing of what happened to her (UNESCO, 2015). Also, there is concern with all forms of censorship against various media outlets, journalists, broadcasters, and citizens that will result in them being prosecuted, harmed in many formats, fatality, banishment, imprisonment, and other forms of punishment that comes from an authoritative government or one that is influences by powerful organizations within the state; anything to control people from saying anything opposing (UNESCO, 2015). Another concern that comes up is that of access to information. At large there is the socio-economic classes that may not have the tools, such as a computer and internet, or the place, such as a library, to obtain information that could expand their knowledge. Moreover, there is the concern about what governments control and present, even in democratic nations such as Canada. According to Anne Kingston, with many governmental libraries closing, the of public servants, as well as many websites being archived and abruptly disappearing before the information is being extracted just for the sake of having one governmental portal website and researchers to obtain the information; most of the government past and current data is being deleted, burned or altered (2015).
Kingston, A. (2015). Vanishing Canada: Why We’re All Losers in Ottawa’s War on Data.
Maclean’s. Retrieved from: http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/vanishing-canada-why-were-all-losers-in-ottawas-war-on-data/
UNESCO (2014). Medium – Term Strategy 2014 – 2021. Retrieved from:
UNESCO (2015). The Communication and Development Program. Retrieved from:
UNESCO (2016). Introducing UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://en.unesco.org/about-
What is Information Policy?
It is a subsection of public policy. It viewed as “…a set of interrelated principles, laws, guidelines, rules and regulations, directions, procedures, judgements, interpretations, and practices that guide the creation, management access and use of information.” (McClure, 1996, p. 214).
How is Information Policy Today?
It is an ever evolving and expanding policy that has broaden to IT, telecommunications, government, economics, sociology, politics and more. It is evolving with the rapid change of technology through its hardware and software programs.
What are the Challenges of Information Policy?
– Copyright vs. privacy Ex. Truth and Reconciliation
Some Advantages, Benefits and Possible Resolutions
BiblioCommons (2014). BiblioCommons Online Public Library Home Site. Retrieved from: http://www.bibliocommons.com/
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2015). Residential school survivors discuss destruction of their testimony. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-november-6-2015-1.3307075/residential-school-survivors-discuss-destruction-of-their-testimony-1.3307123
Geddes, J. (2011). Who cares about libraries? MacLean’s. Retrieved from:
Laucius, J. & A. Duffy (2016). City, Library and Archives in Talks to Team Up for a New
Central Library. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/city-and-lac-in-talks-to-team-up-for-a-new-central-library
McClure, C.R. (1996). Information Policy: Libraries and Federal Information Policy. The
Journal of Academic Librarianship, Vol. 22 (3), pp. 214 – 18.
Canada has always been viewed as being racially – culturally – religious harmonious and tolerant nation, yet, one of its major socio – economic and cultural issues within Canada is the problem of the murdered and missing Aboriginal – Canadian women and girls since 1984 until present.
The reason for such concern is that the disappearance and murder indigenous women are part of a broader pattern of violence and discrimination against indigenous women in Canada.
A total of 1,181 homicide and murder cases were of Aboriginal women and girls; 225 of them have been unresolved with majority of the disappearances and deaths of Aboriginal women occurred in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Several inquiries and studies made by organizations and NGO’s such as NWAC, Canadian House of Commons, British Columbia province, CEDAW, the Inter – American Commission on Human Rights, and the RCMP 2014 report presented root causes that Aboriginal women and girls in being increasingly vulnerability such as effects of intergenerational trauma for Aboriginal people, poverty, language minority issues and cultural loss.
Yet, the Government has repeatedly found it unnecessary for such an inquiry and don’t view the murdered and missing as violations of human rights of Aboriginal women and girls as a national concern warranting immediate and effective State action at all level.
Organizational studies all come to the same conclusion in that due to such higher vulnerable than other female Canadians the Federal Government should pursuit a national inquiry that ensures its actions are nationwide co-ordinated, effective efforts with its provincial and municipal counterparts and hopefully decrease and eventually terminate such huge unresolved homicide and murder rates. Other reasons to push for are the enhancement efforts on unsolved cases by the RCMP and provincial police; increase programs in shelters and violence against women; focusing on prevention efforts; increase in public awareness and strengthening the data.
Any questions and concerns for those who are missing go to: the RCMP’s National Centre for Missing Persons and Unidentified Remains (NCMPUR) website at http://www.canadasmissing.ca/index-eng.htm
Further information on Aboriginal women who are murdered or missing go to:
1. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Report of the inquiry concerning Canada of the Committee of the Elimination of Discrimination against Women under article 8 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Retrieved from: http://www.fafia-afai.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/CEDAW_C_OP-8_CAN_1_7643_E.pdf
2. RCMP. Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/mmaw-faapd-eng.pdf
3. Canadian House of Commons – Special Committee on Violence Against Indigenous Women. INVISIBLE WOMEN: A CALL TO ACTION A Report on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/412/IWFA/Reports/RP6469851/IWFArp01/IWFArp01-e.pdf
Education allows for people find out what their potential is while enhancing the individual’s “…health, improved living standards, and fuller social and political participation in society… [while increasing the] … fundamental role in human, social and economic development.” (UNESCO, 2011). For many Canadians, those who are entering post – secondary institutions, education is viewed as a way to improve their life through obtaining a degree that leads to more opportunity for better jobs, enhancement of their social and medical well – being. Yet, for those from other nations to Canada for post – secondary education is the only way to obtain such opportunities, however, their needs are more vulnerable because of various socio-cultural difficulties and expectations. This essay will be looking at the basic needs of international post-secondary students and finding the information literacy and services that can make his or her life easier when working towards a degree and eventually work. This is done so by observing such needs like education, housing, social and health, finance along with work during and after post-secondary.
Firstly, education is a major need for international students who are going to or already have applied to certain post-secondary institutions. Education is viewed to provide skills and knowledge that can help fulfill one’s living standards, his or her potential, give the individual resources to provide for their family, community and society while governments and academic institutions should administer access to learning opportunities to allow for people to continue to grow while bringing positive change (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2016). What many students need to decide is whether going to other nations will be beneficial within their academic and afterwards. For those who are planning to go to a Canadian university or college, many students have to choose a program as well as a university that has it. According to the Government of Ontario, it encourages perspective students to get a post-secondary brochure and calendar from the institution that displays programs, tuition, housing, and qualifications while faculty websites, which will dictate when will admission apply since the deadlines for every program are different (2016). At the federal level, the Government of Canada requires international students to apply for student permits if they want to study in Canada, no matter the province and city along with a deadline on when to apply to ensure students can be qualified at their school and enter Canada with the proper paper work along with being secure to enter the country (2016). Individual students should have to see on such guides on how to apply, how to prepare to study in Canada and for one’s arrival, checking times, what one needs to study when in Canada and what to do after one applies along with the proper documents and a help desk to answer any question (Government of Canada, 2015).
Once at a post – secondary institution, international students face academic, socio-cultural, and linguistic pressures once they come to the North American academia. Such pressure can come from familial ties, the social environment and oneself. Furthermore, many international students highly value how they perform within academia with the idea that they would “…do as good as, if not better than, they previously did in their own country.” (Chen, 1999, p. 53). Realistically when studying within an unfamiliar educational system, this is not the case because the role of one poor grade can lead to more due to the pressures of self and family to go way down on them that can lead to frustration, doubt and anxiety for future assignments and exams (Chen, 1999). Another major concern, as well as need, is that of the second language. For many students, being tested in TOEFL, and the French equivalent for post-secondary in Quebec, is one matter when entering Canada’s academia. Yet, there is such thing as second language anxiety that come about not only with daily life interactions with others, but, that of the academic interactions along with the technicalities (Chen, 1999). As a result, “…large numbers of graduates can’t conduct themselves well enough in English, Canada will lose out. Either the course standards will fall and students will be graduate with lower-quality degrees or more of them will fail and head back to their homelands bitter about Canadian education. Either way, Canada’s reputation for high-quality universities would suffer and we would miss out on the cultural and economic rewards international students bring.” (Dehaas, 2013). This is why many universities are attempting in finding ways to teach and encourage international students to use the services provided on campus. With the University of Ottawa, Morriset Library has reference staff that can help with searching subject matter, there are in-class lectures on how to use the library’s website and electronic research guides, workshops for all academic levels, web chat if one cannot make it to the library and appointment – made help with librarians in almost every discipline (n.d.a). The university also offers the Academic Writing Centre to ensure that student academic papers are properly written while giving advice on what to look for when editing and the transgressions if they plagiarize (n.d.). For many student’s, education is something that is extremely important. However, trying to be successfully in a different learning environment can be difficult and some will fail. For international students, there is a need for professors, librarians and the senior post – secondary officials not to look at just look at the financial resources and recognition, but, to find ways in keeping the students afloat and become involved citizens of their countries if they go back to Canada.
Housing is a major need for many students when planning on going to university. When it comes to international students, many universities encourage them to apply and stay in residence. There are some other universities that have housing service program, graduate housing, and off campus apartments that can lead to academic achieving because it can ease the mind of international students in being frustrated on a new environment and academic process (Poyrazli & Grahame, 2007). It always depends on the individual students wanting to live on or off campus. If a person wants to live on-campus, majority of universities have a housing residence office that deals with applications and tenant queries. One example is the University of Ottawa Housing Office that requires everyone to apply for one academic year, eight months, and if guaranteed for a bachelor or one room; apply before the deadline with a $700 deposit (2017). If they still want a room that is off campus, they can either look at off-campus University owned apartments or other apartments (University of Ottawa, n.d.). For international students to succeed, they need stability and program housing can aid with that. The real concern can be access to a post – secondary institution’s housing office, through the website and contact information, and how much the students have to pay each month for their educational duration.
Social and Health Needs
The third needs for international students is that of their social and health needs which are intertwined. Studying in other countries, such as Canada, can help develop international post-secondary student’s experiences, increased opportunities such as communication, teamwork, analytical skills, amongst many, and lesson on their strengths weakness and how to do better that can aid them for future employment and better standards of living in all aspects of life. No matter what the profession the individual takes or what level of university or college, travelling and studying abroad can develop the “…ability to think critically, to be adaptive to emerging technologies, to become leaders in professional fields and to seek solutions in research.” (EduCanada, 2016). However, the reality for many international students when going to school abroad is the change in the academic environment, culture shock along with the need for them to adjust themselves in a “…sociocultural, environmental and psychological…” manner in order to handle what is going around them (Chen, 1999). As a result, many international students have an increase in anxiety, stress and more concerning issues of mental illness such as depression. Charles P. Chen further states that the health concerns are linked to linguistic barriers that can have a lasting behavioural, emotional psychological affects for those who struggle with daily communications and academic terminology to educational performance pressure to be the best like at home and then getting poor grades, and sociocultural differences on how to speak with professors and fellow peers along with social activities on campus (1999). For services to be beneficial they have to be socially inclusive. This means the institutions have to incorporate within their services, students and professionals to come together and “…share norms, valies, and understanding which facilitates cooperation within or among groups.” (Caidi & Allard, 2005). If the students are going to Carleton or the University of Ottawa, then they can Google international student office with the university; both schools have brochures, websites and links to other important dates, offices classes and more. The University of Ottawa international house, on the website, there is a buddy program that allows Canadian, exchange and international students to gain experience, contacts, friendships, advice, explore Ottawa and have activities that can deal with social isolation (). The university and guide further encourages that students to use the campus health clinic for any nutritional. psychological, gynaecological, immune concern and more while sending them to the right health professional and office; there is an address and phone number or to go to other apartment organizations (University of Ottawa, 2016). Majority of universities have services for health, social clubs, international offices to come together to ensure a holistic aspect of the well – being of all are in a good common place. Yet, the vulnerability is that of information overload and the numerous places that an individual must look for to get the help or events that they need.
Financial and Employment Needs
Lastly, like many students who are going to North American university or college, international students have financial and employment needs and concerns. Moreover, if an individual does not have the financial resources to pay off tuition, textbooks, student health insurance, transportation, apartment rent, and food, then he or she will have survival mode especially for those who have been self-efficient and turned into a full – time student or for the little to no financial support from family (Chen, 1999). However, one way for a student to obtain financial support is through scholarships, grants, bursaries and loans. According to the Government of Canada’s Student Financial Assistance, there are scholarships, financial assistance from the federal and provincial level, grants and loans along with maintaining and repaying their loans in which students can find on Google; this just offers tools on where and how to get finance to help with the cost of post – secondary school tuition (n.d.). Global Affairs Canada, whom deals with foreign affairs and policy, actually provides their own international scholarships to non – Canadian students such as the Mitacs Globalink Research Award, Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Postdoctoral scholarships – Partnership CNPq/Vale/Mitacs (2016). The provincial governments also provide financial assistance for international students. One example of this is with the Government of Ontario, when one types education and the province in Google, for which it has international students section within the University and College section within the government website. The financial section indicates that international students have three options: go to the financial and award office of the university or college to see what scholarships as well as bursaries, 75 Ontario scholarship and federal government financial support (2016).
The second need for international students based on financial resources is that of employment. Many students before and after they obtain their post – secondary degree are in need for them to gain job – related experience that volunteering may not always be able to give them. While studying in school, there are several programs that students can get into for work. However, as the Government of Ontario website states, depending on the job does the individual will need a permit or not such as having a job on campus versus having one off, respectively (2016). When looking at on campus student jobs, each university has different work programs that they students can have. For Example, the University of Ottawa has two sections, they have the student work – study program that has a variety of paid student jobs in the different academic programs that they gave for work experience as well as the general teach and research assistantships (n.d.b.; n.d.c.). At York University, in Toronto, Ontario, the university has numerous student job programs such as research program, Engagement program, work – study program and other part – time student jobs (n.d.). When it comes to off campus jobs, international students are required to get work visa. They can get this during their time in school. Additionally, the Government of Ontario has the application forms within its international student section while the Federal Government of Canada gives the actual permits; (2016; Citizen and Immigration Canada, 2016). There is a need for every student to get work experience to be able to have more work opportunities, stability as well as improvements within their health, economic and social standards.
In conclusion, education is viewed by many to be something that can develop and enhance “…fundamental role in human, social and economic development…” to allow for individuals to realize their potential while finding opportunities for financial needs along with social and health. Yet, there can be information overload, confusion and stress making them vulnerable at every step ranging from applications to get student visa’s and applying to post-secondary programs to lectures, to financial and mental well-being of the individual. There is a need for a checklist or better steps when looking at how to get the permit to what the individual university provides.
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Reflect (or research) the role of social media in recent elections. Some Examples:
In the 2016 election, Trump had one because of the how many people were looking at him and questioning as to ‘why is a business man and television star” running for president and ‘if he could actually win.’ Moreover, it goes to how many people zoned in on him from news outlets and satirical posts of him links to the idea of ‘any news is good news’ because he was getting more news than Clinton which was shared wildly on social media and added to his campaign even though it has led to concerns of trolling, cyber bullying and hate speech.
Trumps campaign can be viewed as a ‘hated campaign’ because of what he stated about illegal immigrants, Hispanics – mostly Mexicans, and Muslims. This has a 50-50 chance of working well because as seen within the 2015 Canadian election Harper did not win (although less blunt than his American counterpart).
In the 2008 elections with Obama, it was more a progressive and positive campaign which was similar to the Canadian elections in 2015 with Trudeau ‘sunny ways.
2. Is Social Media Stable or Changing in politics
Social media is changing and becoming more powerful depending on how its used and to whom its going to. Also, how many times the information is going to be shared by people and looked at.
If Ottawa was excluded from the rest of the world and there is still the computers and electricity, there can be the creation of local social media websites such as instead of Facebook, it would be “Ottawabook” while getting the public to join. This can be the main news source of what happens within the city. This can also be for radio and television to say what is going. There can be ways to express the community culture similar to the Aboriginal Potlock’s.
There can be letter sending to those one loves, there can be visitations with neighbours, friends and family. There can be co-op programs or other projects such as a gardening group or reading times at the library.
The reading and writing habits could be different for different reasons. It would be different because the individual researcher may not want to share their knowledge in fear of people ripping off their information without doing the work. In other words, there would be secrecy. The will be questions on fact checking because everyone can take any information (correct or not and then) when people are sharing information.
It could be the same for a while because people may be able to write resources (articles, books, papers, etc.), yet, with no copyright laws then another individual can take the exact document and write their name instead. The other individual could be a benefit in any way once they took the book.
2. What might the advantages and disadvantages if this approach be?
One advantage is that information can be shared more widely; gained more easily. Another is that it can be easier to print and scan the physical paper. Without the laws, there will no one can get charged for sharing.
A disadvantaged is that without the laws, many products, information and more can be privatized and sold for a lot of money. It leads to little to no recognition to the creator/inventor and will not benefit in any form. Another issue is that there can be less control over the flow or distribution of the product/service without the IP that it losses its authenticity as well as the facts within certain products could be deluded and questioned. A fourth disadvantage is any funding coming from private companies, governments, think tanks and other institutions for researchers and inventors because there is no way to protect the information that is there.